In contrast, the wavelength of double- been to use the confinement of electric fields that occurs sided plasmons can be tuned geometrically by varying the around a sharp tip. The transmission of the dielectric. However, put. Bow-tie antennas and C-shaped nanometer scale dimensions is discussed in ref 9. The present aperture antennas are alternate optical frequency designs. Principle and Design.
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It is evident from of California, Berkeley. The most appropriate figure-of-merit shown in Figure 2a, to focus double-sided surface plasmons which accounts for both of the above can be defined9 by F by tapering the microstrip transmission line to a sharp point. This figure-of-merit should designed to couple free space visible light into single-sided be used to compare the different candidate structures such surface plasmons before they traverse the taper to an out- as those mentioned in the introduction.
A crude figure-of- coupling facet. As the plasmons propagate across the taper, merit of a plasmonic lens can just be simplified to the spot their phase velocity is reduced in proportion to their size of the focusing achieved at the focal point of the lens wavelength. The two-dimensional analogue of the classical since this can be monitored more easily than the local electric 3D immersion lens, formed in a 2D transmission line is field at the nanoscale.
We refer to this focusing structure as Fabrication and Measurement. The critical dimension a plasmonic dimple lens. We note that this structure is determining the spot size of the focused plasmonic energy fundamentally different from a classical immersion lens in structure shown in Figure 2 is the final thickness of the that the effective index is changing continuously; and that dielectric at the end of the taper.
The fabrication of a three- this change can be larger than an order of magnitude. These dimensional semicircular dimple taper in a dielectric termi- traits lead to unique properties owing to the extremely high nating with a thickness of a few nanometers poses a achievable refractive index for MIM plasmonic waveguide significant challenge.
For small dielectric thickness in a MIM mode. The short plasmonic wavelengths at the end of the structure, double-sided surface plasmons have short wave- taper give rise to strong excitation of the optical electric field lengths see Figure 1 , which have large resistive energy at the focal tip. Thus, optical focusing is achieved in all three losses and hence short propagation lengths. The plasmonic currents are flowing on the metal surfaces, they design parameters and field enhancement estimates can be suffer additional energy loss by scattering via interface found in Chapter 3 of ref 9.
It has been observed that e-beam evaporated gold While the terminal thickness of the dielectric taper and and silver surfaces typically have surface roughness greater the semicircular shape of the dimple lens determine the than nm rms due to the formation of grains. The exact process sequence as depicted in Figure 3 emerged from numerous trials involving different materials like metals, dielectrics, polymers, and epoxies, and different process steps like etch and polishing.
Gold islands were then patterned on this smooth silicon nitride surface using photolithography, e-beam evaporation, and liftoff process Figure 3a. These islands constitute the lower Au layer in the Au-dielectric-Au stack of Figure 2a. They also include the fiducial alignment markers for subsequent e-beam lithography steps and the end point detection markers for the final edge-polishing step. About nm of silicon nitride was deposited on top of these islands by a plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposi- tion PECVD process to reduce stress on the thin LPCVD silicon nitride during the subsequent bulk silicon removal step.
The patterned side of the sample was bonded to a glass piece using low stress silica-filled epoxy for support during the silicon substrate removal. This stack is shown in Figure 3b. A semicircular Au grating of 30 nm height and nm period was patterned using e-beam lithography, e-beam evaporation, and a resist liftoff process Figure 3d. A circular dimple profile was then formed in a nm layer of PMMA with a single spot exposure using e-beam lithography Figure 3e.
Both the grating and the dimple were inspected using a scanning electron microscope SEM and an atomic force Figure 2. The thickness of SiO2 layer tapers in a vertical 4.
To form the top Au layer of Au-dielectric-Au stack as direction. The wavelength of double-sided surface plasmons changes shown in Figure 2a, nm layer of Au was evaporated on along the taper. The focusing action is analogous to that of a tapered transmission line in c.
This Au layer was then etched to gain optical access to the grating using Ar-ion sputter etch with e-beam patterned this scattering loss low, it is important to ensure smooth SU-8 a negative e-beam resist as a mask. Figure 3g depicts surfaces at the two metal-dielectric interfaces that support the stack at this stage.
The structure is then bonded to another plasmons. In view of these considerations, we fabricated the piece of glass using optically transparent epoxy for additional plasmonic dimple lens as a Au-dielectric-Au structure support during the mechanical polishing step as seen in where the dielectric consisted of a layer of poly methyl Figure 3h.
Finally, the sample is polished from the edge until methacrylate PMMA and a layer of thin silicon nitride. The topographic and phase-shift images from amorphous oxide and nitride films on a silicon surface a few the AFM scan of the polished edge facet are shown in Figure nanometers in thickness. A schematic of the measurement setup a positive e-beam resist on top of a thin layer of silicon is shown in Figure 6.
The sample was mounted vertically nitride that determines the minimum dielectric thickness of on the NSOM stage so that the polished out-coupling edge the plasmonic dimple lens. The refractive index of the of the device points upward. The Nano Lett. Furthermore the spot size formed by pulled-fiber NSOM probe. It is important to note that the absolute image at the same time.
Panels a and b of Figure 7 show spot size measurement in panels b and d of Figure 7 is good correlation between the region of high intensity of light believed to be limited by the size of the pulled-fiber probe Nano Lett. We have designed and fabricated a novel plasmonic dimple lens structure in Au-dielectric-Au ge- ometry for focusing visible light to the nanoscale.
Compari- son of measurements of the circular grating coupler alone and the circular grating coupler together with a dimple lens reveal additional focusing provided by the plasmonic dim- ple lens.
However, the measurement of the final spot size produced by the dimple lens was not possible due to the resolution limit of the pulled-fiber NSOM probe used in the Figure 5. Our plasmonic lens is capable of focusing light response of the AFM image of the out-coupling edge after to spot sizes smaller than the aperture size of the com- mechanical edge-polishing.
The size of the scan is 1. A good smooth polish, with minimal polishing relief, makes distinguishing the different layers in the topographic image difficult. The fabrication strategy is such that the critical dimension The out-of-phase-tapping mode response image helps distinguish of this plasmonic lens is controlled by the layer thickness of the different layers in the image.http://control.burgerrecords.com/despus-de-la-tempestad-saga-8-das.php
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The mechanical edge-polishing step in our fabrication sequence lends itself to be easily adopted by the process flow of the magnetic read-write head of a com- mercial hard drive. Thus, this structure could potentially be an excellent candidate for the heat-assisted magnetic record- ing HAMR technology, where the plasmonic dimple lens would be used to focus light to provide the strong local heating required for the next generation higher density hard drives. Schematic of the experimental setup to characterize the field. The limitations of measuring the spot size of the dimple plasmonic dimple lens using near-field scanning optical microscopy lens using a pulled-fiber aperture probe may be overcome NSOM.
Such a scanning the out-coupling facet of the dimple lens. Another photoresist is suitably applied to the out-coupling facet of approach is to use a negative-tone photoresist27,28 that is the dimple lens and gets exposed to the energy at the focal Nano Lett.
Bowtie plasmonic quantum cascade laser antenna. Express , 15, — Spectral analysis of strongly enhanced visible light transmission through single C-shaped nanoapertures.
Heat meets light on the nanoscale : Nanophotonics
Surface plasmon subwavelength optics. Nature , , — Save to Library. Create Alert. Share This Paper.
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